# Of figuration of crankshaft TR law three-dimensional and finite be out of shape play plasticity finite yuan of imitate

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The main problem that large crankshaft experiment studies (1) the direct experiment imitate to large crankshaft is not actual, accordingly can the actual condition that the basis produces, the design gives corresponding experimental imitate model, carry the research of pair of this models, roll out the conclusion that applies to actual production need instead, amend experimental model according to actual condition of production again next. This kind of means is specific to deciding precise figuration technology program and reasonable mould design are to have certain error. (2) is current to resembling crankshaft these need those who experience complex figuration process to be out of shape, although to experimental model, the experimental method with still be not had better determines its are out of shape the complex stress in the process and condition of meet an emergency distributing, can be similar ground determines only the partial field variable of certain and special section is worth, accordingly the improvement of a lot of plan decides according to the experience of actual production, but, it is more difficult that these experience data are optimized to systematic craft, in the meantime, fix the actor defect of original technology program very hard also. (3) needs to expend more scientific research funds to the experimental imitate of large forging. 2.

Crankshaft is finite yuan of simulative is main problem (1) is in figuration process, attrib border condition is more complex: Of preform beforehand forge temperature is 1200 ℃ about, when figuration, temperature is controlled in 1100 ℃ , eventually forge temperature is 1000 ℃ above about, the warm-up temperature of the mould is 200 ℃ about. Accordingly, affirmatory preform is used below this temperature why to plant physical model is very crucial. Additional, in figuration process, the free border of preform and the contact border range that contact with the mould are very big, what because contact,make and arise is nonlinear variation is more complex. (When forge of Dui of 2) large crankshaft, preform bears horizontal load and perpendicular curve load while action, from firsthand step look simple appearance change becomes those who have complex figure eventually forge crankshaft, meantime experience is out of shape complexly process, make primitive finite yuan reseau is measured in the change in figuration process bigger, produce distortion extremely easily. Additional, in whole figuration process, the computation of its meet an emergency should be used finite be out of shape academic, traditional small be out of shape strain gauge calculates theory is improper, because this needs to consider the impact with nonlinear geometry, such making that the calculation of meet an emergency is complex. (3) is in the figuration process of crankshaft, of stress field and field of meet an emergency distributing complex, the 2 dimension model that uses planar stress, planar meet an emergency or axial symmetry very hard undertakes simplifying, accordingly, three-dimensional finite yuan imitate is appropriate. Current, to metallic figuration be out of shape greatly finite yuan of imitate, especially the processing about reseau redraw, it is the job that a lot of scholars are pursueing considering, accordingly, the job of this respect is returned very not perfect. (4) about development finite the practical accuracy dependability of yuan of numeric simulation software, need experiment considers to make farther test and verify and improvement. 3.

Crankshaft figuration is finite process of yuan of numeric imitate research (1) develops those who have versatility to agree with what metallic figuration asks is three-dimensional and finite be out of shape play plasticity finite yuan of software and reseau redraw system, undertake numeric imitate to experimental model at the same time. (2) undertakes experimental imitate to experimental model, have experimental imitate and numeric simulative result comparative test and verify, amend and improve numeric simulative ability and algorithm. (3) general this is finite yuan of simulation that software uses at actual production, the result that the imitate of specific phenomenon test and verify that arises according to actual production produces, be perfected further at the same time and optimize numeric imitate model. According to above the analysis about the difficulty that at present the research of large forging experiment such as crankshaft and numeric imitate study, can see finite yuan of numeric simulative development, regard numeric simulative as an important method, be sure to be in the not far effect with be developed main in this respect in the future. But to finite the practical, dependability of yuan of software and computational precision and versatility, need tries through fair test test and verify and amend. 2, TR law curves the TR law of crankshaft of Dui forge technology to curve Dui forge technology is craft of figuration of crankshaft of a kind of complete fibrous, it is in Poland Bocinajin belonged to forming institute 1963, by T.

Dr. Rut invents, the first letter that presses the full name that takes inventor names [4] . 1.

The principle that TR law curves Dui forge technology machines turning of round good stuff the preform of shape of many protruding stage above all, or the intermediate base that gives preform section forge different diameter, it is next inside appropriative Dui curved model two side abduct neck part Dui goes out, move abduct neck fault, curve abduct handle. Its job process is: Pass ancon lever orgnaization, decompose the pressure of compressor for perpendicular curve wide strength of force and horizontal Dui. In process of forge of TR law Dui, as ancon lever dip reduce gradually, horizontal Dui wide strength is increased gradually. When arriving at Dui forge terminus, horizontal component of force reachs maximum, the 2 ～ that its value can achieve compressor nominal pressure 3 times. Of force this kind allocates more reasonable, the be identical of metabolic rule photograph of the trend of this kind of change because of horizontal component of force and obstruction of music arm figuration. While horizontal force brings to bear on, the inter still brings to bear on perpendicular curve force. Horizontal Dui wide strength makes the club expects Dui is thick the arm that become music, intermediate perpendicular force curves next wrong formation brace is sold. After one abduct is finished, preform is rotational included angle of a brace, again the music abduct of adjacent of Dui forge photograph. 2.

The advantage that TR law complete fiber curves Dui forge crankshaft (1)TR law uses ancon lever orgnaization to decompose perpendicular force for horizontal force, in pressurization process, the dip of ancon lever is reduced ceaselessly, make horizontal power continuous increase, and the addition of horizontal force and be out of shape the addition that fights force suits. (The mould water translation of 2)TR law moves a distance to grow, when hydraulic press beam promotes, make the mould has an older files. Be in in the begining clamp semifinished product, ancon lever is in perpendicular position on, assured the largest clamping force, because this uses round club makings to make semifinished product directly likely, and not certain first semifinished product prefab into " sugarcoated haws on a stick " shape. (3)TR law is forginging not only hydraulic press, also can use at mechanical compressor. Forginging when crankshaft, can twist horn to design fixed position impression by music abduct. Heat an abduct of a few music, can one fire forge goes out. After one abduct is finished, change proper fixed position module, continue Dui forge another abduct. 3, of figuration of TR law crankshaft finite yuan of imitate analysis basis in process of figuration of crankshaft TR law, workpiece squashs in the level and perpendicular curve load while below action, arose to be out of shape complexly process. Be out of shape according to its characteristic, developed apply to finite metabolic to play plasticity finite yuan of software, built corresponding reseau redraw module. Of the theory about this two parts and software practical with dependability, in document [1, 2] in have detailed treatise. Graph 1 finite yuan of analytic reseau model because crankshaft TR law is producing medium figuration actually is odd turn ordinal figuration, because this is being built finite yuan when geometrical model, considering the symmetry of odd turn figuration, with odd turn 1/4 try to consider. What the mould reachs preform is finite yuan reseau differentiates means is shown 1 times like the graph, mould place is 5CrMnMo with material, crankshaft place is 35CrMoA with material, if the graph is shown 2 times,its stress meet an emergency concerns. Coefficient of friction is 0.

2, the load displacement curve of imitate process is shown 3 times like the graph. Can see from load displacement curve, when arriving at Dui forge terminus, horizontal component of force is the largest, its are worth the 3 times above that is perpendicular load about, this agrees with the conclusion photograph of actual production. In the meantime, horizontal load increases from beginning to end in to load process, perpendicular curve load to be in preform and below inclined an osculatory hind, produced those who be down to reduce, and here quarter have horizontal load to increase apparently, this says palpability falls inclined an influence to horizontal load force and perpendicular load force. Graph relation of meet an emergency of 2 material stress pursues graph of 3 load displacement 4 with the graph 5 it is reseau after passing redraw, the comparison of reseau appearance, and the comparison that delivers around field quantity to distributing, relative result explained reseau redraw made sure the field between new old reseau measures distributinging precision, proved the function of the system of the three-dimensional reseau redraw of development, can satisfy computational requirement. (Before A) redraw (the graph after B) redraw the comparison of appearance of unit of around of 4 reseau redraw (before A) redraw (pursue after B) redraw the comparison that quantity of field of meet an emergency of plasticity of equivalent of around of 5 reseau redraw distributings pursues 6 with the graph 7 be the equivalent plasticity meet an emergency of the crankshaft when forge distributings and wait eventually. From equivalent plasticity meet an emergency distributing on, greater strength and stiffness arise after can seeing figuration of TR law crankshaft made sure crankshaft diameter is out of shape, assured to the requirement of complex stress load bears when applying so. At the same time stress area is mixed of area of meet an emergency distributinging answer relatively, accord with the demand that forecasts theoretically. Graph 6 eventually the equivalent plasticity meet an emergency when forge distributings graph 7 eventually the equivalent stress when forge distributings 4, conclusion passes figuration of pair of law of large crankshaft TR the imitate of the process, those who proved development is three-dimensional and finite be out of shape play plasticity finite yuan reach system of three-dimensional reseau redraw to be able to satisfy the large forging such as elephantine crankshaft the numeric simulative requirement of complex figuration, the information such as the field of figuration process stress that provides these forging at the same time and field of meet an emergency, be optimized for craft and reasonable mould design provides academic basis. From the point of imitate result, craft of figuration of forge of Dui of TR law complete fiber can assure forging to issue the intensity of a need and stiffness in complex work environment. CNC Milling